Designing and conducting a survey is a common method for gathering information about a specific group or population. A well-structured survey is a crucial element of any research project, and it is important to create an effective survey to ensure that the data collected is relevant and accurate. In this article, we will explore the steps involved in structuring a survey and provide best practices to create an effective survey.

  1. Define the purpose and objectives of the survey

The first step in structuring a survey is to define the purpose and objectives of the survey. This step involves identifying the research question or problem that the survey seeks to address. The research question or problem should be clearly stated and specific.

  1. Identify the target population

The next step in structuring a survey is to identify the target population or group that will be surveyed. The target population should be defined by specific demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, income, or education level.

  1. Determine the sample size

The sample size is the number of people in the target population who will be surveyed. The sample size should be large enough to be representative of the target population but small enough to be manageable. The size of the sample will depend on the research question, the characteristics of the target population, and the level of accuracy required.

  1. Choose the survey method

The survey method is the way in which the survey will be administered to the participants. There are several survey methods to choose from, including online surveys, paper surveys, telephone surveys, and face-to-face surveys. The survey method chosen will depend on the characteristics of the target population and the research question.

  1. Develop the survey questions

The survey questions should be designed to gather the information needed to answer the research question or problem. The questions should be clear and concise, and they should be structured to elicit specific information. The questions should be designed to avoid bias and should be relevant to the target population.

  1. Create the survey structure

The survey structure is the order in which the questions are presented to the participants. The survey should begin with simple and non-threatening questions to establish a rapport with the participants. The survey questions should be organized into logical sections that flow naturally from one section to the next.

  1. Include demographic questions

Demographic questions are questions that gather information about the characteristics of the participants, such as age, gender, income, or education level. These questions are important because they provide context for the responses to the survey questions and allow for comparisons across demographic groups.

  1. Test the survey

Before administering the survey to the target population, the survey should be tested on a small sample of people who are similar to the target population. This testing will help to identify any problems with the survey questions, the survey structure, or the survey method.

Best practices for structuring a survey

To structure a survey that is effective and efficient, consider the following best practices:

  1. Keep the survey questions simple and clear.
  2. Avoid leading or biased questions.
  3. Use closed-ended questions whenever possible to make data analysis easier.
  4. Avoid using too many open-ended questions.
  5. Organize the survey questions into logical sections.
  6. Ensure that demographic questions are included in the survey.
  7. Use a mix of question types, such as multiple choice, ranking, and rating scales.
  8. Use visual aids, such as graphs or tables, to present the data.
  9. Keep the survey short to avoid survey fatigue.
  10. Test the survey before administering it to the target population.


In summary, structuring a survey is a critical part of conducting a research project. The survey should be designed to answer the research question or problem, and the questions should be clear, concise, and unbiased. The survey should be organized into logical sections, and demographic questions should be included. Best practices for structuring a survey include keeping questions simple and clear, using closed-ended questions whenever possible, avoiding too many open-ended questions, and keeping the survey short. By following these best practices, a well-structured survey can provide accurate and relevant data that can be used to make informed decisions.